24 Roof Parts Names, Its Function, and Detailed Diagram You Must Know

Of all the constituent elements of the house, the roof parts are one of the most complex. Without a good structure, these components certainly cannot provide the best comfort and protection for all residents inside.

That is why there are precisely twenty-four components to a roof. Each element certainly has a varying form and function.

It starts from structural members, layers, exterior parts to other complementary features such as chimney and skylight.

In addition, it is not only the builders who have to understand these roof parts and members. The homeowner also needs to know some roof structure terminology either.

Furthermore, it will help to identify problems once there is damage to one of them. As a result, it will be easier for you to do reparation yourself without hiring a professional.

Therefore, in this article, you will find those twenty-four roof parts of a house names, complete with its form, function, and diagram to make it easier for you to find their exact location.

Indeed, different types of roofs will have different arrangements of structures either. But don’t worry, because most of them have similar components and functions.

Below is the roof parts glossary that is generally owned.

Labeled Roof Parts Diagram for Easily Finding the Components Exact Location

roof parts diagram

Based on the diagram above, you can see that a roof has complex anatomy which includes:


1. Collar Beams as The Intersectional Roof Parts

Collar beams are roof parts that are generally installed horizontally to connect the two sides of the rafters.

The components of the collar beams are parts of a roof frame that intersect the ridge board. Generally, the collars attached to the bottom of the rafters are replaced with a tie beam to prevent these two members from spreading.

2. Rafters for Supporting Components Above the Roofing System

Rafters are parts of a roof truss set diagonally that meet at the peak of the frame and also resemble the triangular shape.

These members function as the supporting components for the decking system as well as holding the loads above it.

3. Fascia, the Blocking System from Moisture

The fascia is part of the roof, which is usually made of wood. However, nowadays, it is often made of vinyl or aluminum, which serves as a protection cover at the rafters’ end.

Fascia is one of several roof parts that can be seen from the exterior of the house. This component mainly serves to block the entrance for water into your home so that the room and the roofing system are free from moisture.

Besides, this section can also be an aesthetic point of a house because it produces an even appearance on all roof sides.

4. Lookouts as the Extended Supporting Roof Parts

Lookouts or the out lookers are roof parts consisting of horizontal wooden joints that appear to extend outside the walls of your house.

In general, these components are useful for supporting the sheathing system and also holding other roofing materials over them.

5. Spaced Sheathings is the Roof Members Resemble Ladder Pattern

The other essential roof parts are the spaced sheathings. It is a system of installing the flat wooden panels arranged sequentially to form a ladder pattern.

Moreover, this part of the truss is mounted above the lookout and is usually referred to as skipped decking.

Also, it is where the solid decking will be nailed. If this section is not installed firmly and regularly, then your roofing system will quickly fall.

6. Rakes for Covering the Top Edge

Rakes are the roof parts that have the sloping edges attach at the ends of the gable. This component certainly forms a cover for your house’s top edge, precisely on the wall that meets the roof.

This structure is useful for protecting the lower part from the rainwater flow.

7. Ridge Board as The Critical Point in Roofing System

The ridge board is the key to all truss sections. It is horizontal primary support, which is usually made of timber or metal. In this component, the two ends of the rafters meet each other.

Without this ridge board, all roof parts will not form a solid frame for your house protection.

8. Solid Decking as the First Layer Over the Roof Frame

Solid decking is the first covering process on the framing system using sturdy materials such as plywood, polystyrene, concrete, or metal.

In this component, all other roof parts will be laid and nailed in an orderly manner to be able to present a stable and attractive exterior.

9. Felt Underlayment, The Layering Part for Double Protection

The underlayment is a layer that is attached right over the concrete decking. Generally, the material used is felt, a waterproof paper that functions to provide double protection to the roof parts underneath.

By installing the felt underlayment, it will later save your home from the broken shingle.

10. Valleys, The Debris Channel

Valley is one of the roof parts of a house, which is a channel resembling a vee shape extend inward to your home.

Usually, it is made of metal. It is also the spot where the fallen leaves or other debris from outside your home gather. If you don’t clean this roof part regularly, thus it leads you to some problems.

11. Valley Underlayment, the Waterproof Sheet Over the Vee Channel

Valley underlayment is the next layering material to cover the debris channel surface from leaking.

Layering the valley with waterproof paper like this will help keep it from damage due to the season changing or other exterior causes.

12. Valley Flashing, A Waterproof Layer Made of Seal

For the umpteenth time, people are using the layering process to protect the roof parts from various things that can damage and also reduce the robustness of the existing roofing system.

The protection component this time comes with flashing, which is a layering sheet made of metal, usually aluminum, to cover any intersection or gaps in the roof frame.

In general, this component will block water from entering and absorbing to your building and delivering it to the gutter part.

13. Shingles, the Outermost Roof Parts Protecting Your Home from Weather and Sunlight

When you ask, “what is the top part of a roof called?” then the answer is shingles.

Shingles are the outer roof parts cover, which usually has a flat shape and is made of various solid materials such as plastic, wood, flagstone, metal, slate, and asphalt.

Besides being useful as a protection layer from the weather changing and sunlight, shingles can also be the aesthetical part of your home roofing system’s finished look.

14. Vent Pipe Flashing, The Plumbing System that Sticking Up on The Roof

Vent pipe flashing is a long pipe on your external roofing system.

This component is useful for preventing water from entering the building, reducing the heat, and also regulating air circulation so that your home is free from moisture.

15. Skylight as the Solar Catcher in Your Home

One of the many roof parts you can find easily because of its unique position is the skylight. Some also call this section a dormer.

Skylight is part of the roof in the form of a window that extends on your roof covered with shingles.

This element plays a role in capturing and channeling sunlight during the day to enter the attic and provide adequate ventilation.

In addition to the above functions, a skylight is also useful for giving your home’s roofing system an attractive appearance.

16. Chimney, the Exterior Component Extended Vertically on Your Roof

The chimney is another vertical element of the roof that is also as easy to find as a skylight. This component’s function is to help divert the smoke and gas coming from your house to the outside.

Besides, there are many chimneys’ styles for the houses, ranging from square, round, and even combining the two.

17. Chimney Flashing, the Water-Resistant Seal to Prevent Moisture for entering the House

Chimney flashing is a seal coupled with water resistance capability, which is usually installed around the bottom of this component.

In addition, it can be found at the junction between the roof and the chimney, preventing moisture from entering the house.

This section also needs to pay attention to if a problem occurs, either keeping the old one or needing an update for your roofing maintenance.

18. Gutter, the Long Pipe Attach to The Roof to Prevent Water from Seeping to the Wall

The gutter is another critical point of the roof section. Because it is a channel made of a long pipe that extends along the roofline.

Furthermore, the gutter is assistance that fosters the flow of water to enter the downspout without seeping on the walls of your house.

A gutter that is still functioning well will protect your home from water seepage. However, if you find that part of your wall is still wet, try checking this section.

Also, immediately consider repairing or replacing it with a new one if needed. It is essential to avoid problems that cause long-term water damage.

19. Down Spout, the Vertical Pipe Beneath the Gutter

Look at the roof parts diagram at the beginning of this article. Then you will find that the downspout is an element of a long, narrow pipe directly connected to the gutter.

This pipe is installed downward to the ground to efficiently carry out the water flow from the gutter safely without splashing everywhere.

20. Splash Block, the Horizontal Pipe under the Down Spout

Still concerning the piping, the splash block is the bottom part of the downspout pipe, which begins with a curved section followed by a horizontal continuation pipe that moves away from the house.

This spout block can drain the water from the downspout, so it doesn’t wet around the house. It aims to prevent water from seeping into the lower walls of the house.

Several conditions may cause blockage, such as the accumulation of leaves on the winding side. That’s why you should clean this pipe regularly, especially during rainy days.

21. Gable, the Triangular Wall Beneath the Rafters

Gables are roof parts that are triangular-shaped remaining walls that usually connect directly to the edges of your home’s roofing system, such as those under rafters.

22. Hip, The Outward Valley Version

Unlike the valleys projected inward, the hips are roof parts where the two sides of the roofs meet each other to form a rising outward angle. Not all homes have this part. Only a few have adopted such a model.

23. Roof Plane, the Most Noticeable among Other Roof Parts

The roof plane is a flat part, precisely the roof’s surface that is easily visible from the outside. The part has four edges connected with another one in a slanted style, joined by a ridge board in the middle.

24. Soffit, the Underside Parts of the Roof

Many are wondering, “what part of the roof is the soffit?” The answer is that it is the roof component visible if you stand on the ground where it is in, unlike the other roof parts you can quickly see.

Put merely, and soffit is the roof structure that sits between the roof’s eaves and is the spot where the fascia and gutter attach to the wall. Not all roofing systems have a soffit. Only a few with overhangs that have it.

Final Thought

After breaking down the roof parts that forming your house covering system, starting from structural elements, layering sections, to the exterior components, you can finally find out that all of them support each other.

If there is one damaged element, it can also cause other problems that reduce the robustness of your home protection system.

Therefore, by knowing the shape, finding the precise location, and understanding its function correctly, hopefully, you will not take a wrong step in carrying out or repairing your house’s cover elements.

Subsequently, after you understand the roof parts arrangement well, you can immediately resolve any problem yourself without spending more on professional hiring.

You can come with a few hardware as well as tools and take good maintenance of your house’s roof parts.

Jackson Morales
Jackson Morales

Amateur problem solver. Travel enthusiast. Avid entrepreneur. Organizer. Total thinker.

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